Mental disorders are not so uncommon these days. Though some of them are considered to be a taboo in some parts of the world. The list of the disorders falling under this category keeps adding up every time since human behavior is one complicated subject. Some disorders like anxiety and depression are a part of almost everyone’s life these days. There is a range of disorders and conditions that get developed because of basic ones like anxiety and depression.
This article highlights 13 mental disorders that everyone could be able to relate with but the condition of the sufferer is quite extreme.
Kleptomania is the type of mental disorder in which the sufferer feels a constant urge to steal things on the sight of them being unguarded at any time. kleptomaniacs steal things not because they need or may need it but only for the sake of some thrill or excitement that comes after doing the deed. Kleptomania may or may not be associated with other mental disorders such as anxiety and eating disorders and so it falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) since the sufferer feels it hard to resist stealing things.
2. Pathological lying
Pathological lying is the specific type of behavior in which the sufferer involuntarily lies not for the sake of escape from some situation or some person but just because they are feeling an innate compulsion of lying and therefore pathological lying, in some cases are categorized as the symptoms of OBC. Many refer to it as Pseudo fantastic and also mythomania. Under this disorder, the person may or may not know that he telling a lie or changing the scenario of what happened but with some added fantasy. Some psychologists believe that Pathological Lying may be a symptom of some serious mental disorder such as borderline, OBC, antisocial and narcissism.
It is a very uncommon type of neurological disorder which promotes daytime and unplanned sleepiness. the person with this disorder falls asleep at anytime most of the times without being aware that they are falling asleep. Narcolepsy usually is accompanied by a sudden boost of weakness in muscles triggered by strong emotions and the sufferers are aware of this phenomenon going on with them. Also, people suffering from Narcolepsy experience REM just within 5 minutes as soon as they fall asleep and this duration are very less compared to those who don’t have this disorder.
4. Night Eating Syndrome(NES)
Night Eating Disorder refers to eating at night mostly after waking from disturbed sleep. NES gets developed among the people with irregular eating schedules and also the sufferers feel the urge to eat at evening and late at the night. Psychologists believe that NES, like most of the other eating disorders, may also be related to some critical conditions of mind such as depression, excitement, grief, and insomnia NES is experienced by both men and women. People seem to suffer from this disorder mostly in their adulthood. Though this disease implies untimely intake of food by sufferers, that does not imply that sufferers are bound to eat excessively.
Klazomania refers to compulsive shouting. Patients with klazomania seem to get this disorder by the occurrence of various factors such as alcohol abuse, being poisoned by CO, etc. Klazomania mostly doesn’t exist solely i.e. people suffering from this disorder are reported being attacked by other mental disorders at that point in time such as borderline or mixed personality disorder. Also, when a kleptomaniac shouts, it may appear that he/she is going through a lot of pain though no such physical discomfort if present with the person. The attack of disorder induces very vigorous physical movements. And after that phase has passed, the sufferer regains consciousness.
6. Hoarding disorder
Being in the condition of hoarding disorder, the sufferer finds it difficult to get rid of possessions because he/she feels that they should save them for some future use that is uncalled for at that moment. Compulsive hoarding or hoarding disorder seems to have a lot of effects on financial as well as social health. This can also be seen not only as a separate individual disease but also as a symptom of OCD by many doctors. The people suffering from hoarding disorder, or hoarders do not really consider this as a disease and may claim that they are normal but those are the people around them that sense abnormality in the behavior of hoarder.
8. Nightmare disorder
Nightmare disorder refers to the state where one experiences frequent nightmares. Irregularity in the schedule or irregularity in times of sleeping and waking causes nightmare disorder. Any tragedy related to one’s life also promotes nightmare disorder. Depression or any anxiety can be the cause too. Nightmare disorder takes place during REM (Rapid Eye Movement) stage of sleep. REM is the last stage of the sleep cycle. Our sleep is divided into two stages- REM and non-REM. Dreams tend to occur in the REM stage. Also, there is a difference between a bad dream and a nightmare. If you are dreaming of something which you don’t like or find shocking but it does not wake you up, then it is just a bad dream. Nightmares can be frequent up to 2-3 times a night.
9. Death anxiety or Thanatophobia
Death Anxiety means fear of death. It is also known as thanatophobia. Death anxiety is common in living beings. It arises due to various physical and psychological ups and downs. It is different from necrophobia in the way that necrophobia is the fear of dead people. Death anxiety is of three types. Predator death anxiety is the oldest type. It involves the fear of getting harmed by some unexpected threat. Predation death anxiety is another type. It arises when a creature harms another and then fears his death. This is accompanied by guilt. Existential death anxiety is the most basic type. It gives a person the sense that a natural life has an end.
As mentioned earlier, necrophobia is the fear of the dead. The sufferer can be afraid of anything that is dead or, is related to death. Fear from the dead is common but a necrophobic is extremely afraid of it. Fear generates from being near to tombstones, dead bodies, and funerals. The fear also arises from the thinking that the spirit of the dead may haunt the sufferer. The disorder promotes heavy breathing, gasping, mental instability and alike behavior. Medications and therapy are used to treat necrophobia.
11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder(BDD)
Body Dysmorphic disorder is a condition in which the sufferer feels obsessively preoccupied with some defect in appearance. Though the condition may seem normal to others, it seems to be bizarre to the sufferer. The sufferer seems to be mentally exaggerating it. This is found with people in their adolescence. This disorder is also known as dysmorphia and dysmorphic syndrome. Dismorphophobia is the name given to it. Psychologists think that it falls under the category of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. This disease can be regarded as the least diagnosed. Due to the shame that is brought to the sufferer of BDD, he/she shares less about it with the people around.
12. Histrionic Personality Disorder
This disorder is about people wanting to seek attention in any possible way. HPD falls into the category of personality disorders. The sufferer shows the symptoms of loud behavior and shiny appearance, maybe seductive often. HPD is seen in women and men in the ratio of four to one. The sufferers of this disorder are believed to be having some problems with their ego. Self indulgence can also be considered as a factor. HPD implies the need of constant longing of appreciation and approval. This can impose problems when the sufferer is not the centre of attraction at any event. Psycoanalytic theory is used to treat HPD.
13. Morbid jealousy
It is a disorder in which the sufferer constantly doubts his or her spouse or sexual partner. Due to this mental state, the sufferer presumes that one’s partner is cheating or is invvoves with someone else. This gives rise to irrational behavior. The sufferer keeps tracking down the partner by checking their phone calls, questioning their whereabouts and doubting everything. This disorder is also called Othello syndrome and dilusional jealousy.