India, once a world leader economically and strategically, was reduced to one of the poorest countries due to the horrors of colonialization. As per Wikipedia, during the 1700s, India ranked first among all countries in the world based on GDP.
A majority of historians agree to the fact that British colonialization crippled the country ruled by the British crown and led to an increase in British Treasuries. Social and cultural values were also degraded in many colonies such as Africa and India. Indians paid hefty taxes while working in a slave economy, all for the advantage of British enterprises.
Indian Freedom Struggle marks numerous events, personalities, and ideologies, all working with the sole aim of freedom from colonial rule. This includes personalities playing an ideological and inspirational role, as well as some directly acting against the colonies. Here is a brief about key individuals among thousands that played part in the Freedom Struggle.
1. Mahatma Gandhi
- Full Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
- Born: 2 October 1869
- Died: 30th January 1948
Mahatma Gandhi was the leader of the Indian Independence Movement. Born on 2nd October 1869, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi led various resistances across India in the period between 1915 and 1947, opposing the colonial British rule. Entitled as “Father of the nation” (to India, Unofficially), he was a pioneer in peace and non-violence. Mahatma Gandhi’s Civil Disobedience Movement, along with various events helped India gain independence eventually.
Mahatma Gandhi was born in a wealthy family at the coastal city of Porbandar. His father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi was holding the office as Chief Administrator (also known as Diwan) of Porbandar. Porbandar was and still remains one of the major port cities on the western coast of India, and his father being the administrative head of the area made the family progressive.
He was born to a Hindu family, following strong views of peace and tolerance. Drinking and smoking were frowned upon in the area. Many of the historical details on Mahatma Gandhi, especially his childhood are taken from his autobiography “The Story of My Experiments with Truth“.
2. Subhash Chandra Bose
- Full Name: Subhas Chandra Bose
- Born: 23 January 1897
- Died: 18 August 1945
Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was a celebrated Indian leader known for his efforts in the freedom movement by grouping with Nazi Germany and Japan. He was also the one who is believed to have founded the Azad Hind Army in 1942, composed of Indian troops and POWs.
His efforts to help achieve Indian Independence were only partly successful. He served as the president of Indian National Congress during years 1938-1939 but was made to leave subsequently due to differences with Mahatma Gandhi and other Congress leaders.
He died in a plane crash in the year 1945, while boarded on a Japanese plane and flying over Taiwan. There is some controversy to whether he actually died at that incident.
3. Rani Lakshmibai
- Full Name: Manikarnika Tambe
- Born: 19 November 1828
- Died: 18 June 1858
Manikarnika, aka Jhansi ki Rani was one of the prominent freedom fighters in the rebellion of 1857. Also known as Lakshmibai, and born as Manikarnika, she was the queen from the Maratha-ruled Jhansi State, located in the north-central portion of The Indian subcontinent.
She was among the foremost figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and thus was for Indian nationalists synonymous to a symbol of resistance to the rule of the British East India Company within the subcontinent.
4. Bhagat Singh
- Full Name: Bhagat Singh
- Born: 1907
- Died: 23 March 1931
Bhagat Singh was an Indian socialist regarded as probably the most influential revolutionaries from the Indian freedom movement. He is also known as “Shaheed Bhagat Singh”, the term “Shaheed” signifying “martyr” in many South Asian as well as Middle Eastern languages.
Born into a Sikh household that was involved previously in revolutionary activities against the British, being a teenager Singh studied Western European revolutionary movements as well as was drawn to radical and Marxist ideologies.
5. Tipu Sultan
- Full Name: Badshah Nasibuddaulah Sultan Fateh Ali Bahadur Sahab Tipu
- Born: 20 November 1750
- Died: 4 May 1799
Tipu Sultan, often known as the Tiger of Mysore and Tipu Sahib, was a leader from the dominion of Mysore and also a scholar, knight, and poet. Having been the oldest son of Sultan Hyder Ali of Mysore.
Tipu unveiled numerous administrative enhancements throughout his rule, which includes his coins, a fresh Mauludi lunisolar calendar, along with a completely new property revenue process that initiated the expansion of Mysore silk industry.
Tipu improved the particular iron-cased Mysorean rockets and also authored the military guide Fathul Mujahidin, regarded as a leader in the usage of rocket artillery. He used the rockets in opposition to advances of British forces and their allies on their 1792 and 1799 Siege of Srirangapatna.
6. Surendranath Banerjee
- Full Name: Surendranath Banerjee
- Born: 10 November 1848
- Died: 6 August 1925
Sir Surendranath Banerjee had been among the very first Indian political leaders through the British Raj. He set up the Indian National Association, by which he directed two complete sessions of the Indian National Conference in 1883 and 1885, together with Anandamohan Bose. Banerjee, later on, had become a senior leader in the Indian National Congress.
Surendranath appreciated the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, in contrast to Congress, and along with numerous open-minded leaders quit Congress and formed the Indian National Liberation Federation in 1919. Banerjee was also called by the sobriquet as Rashtraguru.
He was editor of “The Bengali” newspaper.
7. Surendranath Tagore
- Full Name: Surendranath Tagore
- Born: 1872
- Died: 1940
Surendranath Tagore was a Bengali writer, literary scholar, and translator. He was involved with supporting the strike that was called by railway employees in Bombay in 1899, and consequently became mixed up in the well known Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, towards the 1905 partition of Bengal. Surendranath’s work in the original phases of the establishment of Vishwabharati university or college is considered important, where he also sat in the university’s posting table. He graduated from St Xavier’s College, Calcutta in 1893, with an early on stage in his life he became mixed up in Indian nationalist motion. Surendranath’s sister Indira Devi Choudhurani, given birth to in 1873, was a mentioned litterateur, writer, and musician. He’s particularly mentioned for translating lots of works of Rabindranath Tagore into English. He also offered to work as the editor from the Visva-Bharati Quarterly from the July 1923 up to April of 1929. Surendranath is credited with creating lots of Indian-owned banks and insurance firms by which he wanted to encourage indigenous industries. An associate of the Tagore family living in Calcutta, he was born in 1872 to Satyendranath Tagore and Gyanodanandini Devi in Bombay. Surendranath is also thought to have been mixed up in an early stage of revolutionary Movement for Indian independence when he served as the treasurer of the Anushilan Samiti established under Pramatha Mitra.
8. Shivaram Rajguru
- Full Name: Shivaram Hari Rajguru
- Born: 24 August 1908
- Died: 23 March 1931
Shivaram Hari Rajguru was considered a great Indian revolutionary coming from Maharashtra, referred to mainly for his participation inside the killing of the English policeman. On Twenty third march, 1931 he was hanged by way of British authorities along with Bhagat Singh.
Having been a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, he desired India to be free from British rule in any respect required. He concluded the fact that ferocity against oppression is much more efficient against British rule compared to the nonviolent civil disobedience favored by Mahatma Gandhi.
Rajguru had become an associate of Bhagat Singh as well as Sukhdev and had taken part in the killing of a British police officer, J. P. Saunders, at Lahore during 1928. Their particular activities would have been to avenge the loss of life of Lala Lajpat Rai who had died a fortnight after getting hit by police force while on a march protesting the Simon Commission. The idea was that Rai’s loss came with the police action, even though he had addressed a gathering later on after the police action.
9. Sukhdev Thapar
- Full Name: Sukhdev Thapar
- Born: 15 May 1907
- Died: 23 March 1931
Sukhdev Thapar had been a great Indian revolutionary. He was a key member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), and also placed revolutionary cells within Punjab as well as other regions of Northern India. He was hanged at 23rd of March 1931 at the age of twenty three. His ancestral residence is within Naughara Mohalla of Ludhiana town, in the Punjab state of India. Sukhdev was son of Ram Lal and as well Ralli Devi.
10. Chandra Shekhar Azad
- Full Name: Chandrashekhar Tiwari
- Born: 23 July 1906
- Died: 27 February 1931
Chandra Shekhar Azad was the singular firebrand revolutionary who also intensely craved freedom for this country. A contemporary connected with Bhagat Singh, Azad in no way really received the identical amounts of devotedness with regard to his deeds, however, his activities had been no less daring. His life-long objective was to generate the maximum amount of trouble for the British Government as possible. Having been the particular master of disguises, he evaded capture from the British law enforcement several times. His well-known déclaration, ‘Dushmano Ki Goliyon Ka Saamna Hum Karenge, Azad Hi Rahe Hain, Aur Azad hi Rahenge’, is certainly exemplary regarding his model of revolution. Azad soaked up martyrdom as if it were an old friend and also prompted a new intense feeling of nationalism within the spirits of his contemporaries.
11. Lala Lajpat Rai
- Full Name: Lala Lajpat Rai
- Born: 28 January 1865
- Died: 17 November 1928
Lala Lajpat Rai must have been a prominent nationalist leader who also performed a good part inside India’s struggle to get freedom. Lala Rai was a notable person in the famous ‘Lal Bal Pal’ revolutionary trio throughout the independence movement. His intense model of patriotism as well as powerful vocalism up against the British rule gained him the title of ‘Punjab Kesari’ or perhaps the Lion of the Punjab. He additionally opened up the Punjab National Bank. Throughout 1897, he set up the particular Hindu Orphan Relief Movement to maintain the Christian missions through acquiring legal care of such children. Having been terribly injured in police lathi-charge about the activists, who had been protesting the particular introduction regarding Simon Commission, he passed away a couple of days later as a result of injuries.
12. Ram Prasad Bismil
- Full Name: Ram Prasad Bismil
- Born: 11 June 1897
- Died: 19 December 1927
A revolutionary independence activist, Bismil had been a skilled poet who also published in Urdu and Hindi, underneath the pen names Ram, Agyat and also Bismil. He was additionally the actual founding person in Hindustan Republican Association (which grew to become Hindustan Socialist Republican Association) whose very popular revolutionary participants happen to be Bhagat Singh as well as Chandrashekhar Azad.
13. Batukeshwar Dutt
- Full Name: Batukeshwar Dutt
- Born: 18 November 1910
- Died: 20 July 1965
Batukeshwar Dutt, lovingly referred to as BK Dutt, Mohan or even Battu was given birth to on 18 November 1910 within the Oari village at what is currently West Bengal. He moved to Kanpur to learn inside the PPN High school, coming from where he or she graduated. In 1924, Dutt connected with Bhagat Singh, and then the 2 grew to become solid friends. Bhagat Singh ended up being a lively member of the particular Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) when he found Dutt, and even soon, the latter joined up with the force as well. Just like Singh and Chandrashekhar Azad did, Dutt also mastered making bombs during this period.
14. Sarat Chandra Bose
- Full Name: Sarat Chandra Bose
- Born: 6 September 1889
- Died: 20 February 1950
Sarat Chandra Bose had been a lawyer and also Indian independence activist. He was the child of Janakinath Bose as well as older sibling of Subhas Chandra Bose.
15. Bhupendra Nath Datta
- Full Name: Bhupendranath Datta
- Born: 4 September 1880
- Died: 25 December 1961
Bhupendranath Datta had been a great Indian revolutionary and later he was a known sociologist. In the youth, he was strongly linked to the Jugantar movement, offering as being the editor for Jugantar Patrika until his police arrest as well as imprisonment in 1907. Within the later groundbreaking career, he was involved in to the Indo-German Conspiracy.
16. Jayaprakash Narayan
- Full Name: Jayaprakash Narayan
- Born: 11 October 1902
- Died: 8 October 1979
Jayaprakash Narayan, widely known as JP or Lok Nayak, had been an Indian freedom activist, theorist, communist and also a political head, appreciated particularly for playing a prominent role in the mid-1970s resistance in opposition to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, regarding whose fall he called out as a “total revolution”.
17. Birsa Munda
- Full Name: Birsa Munda
- Born: 15 November 1875
- Died: 9 June 1900
Birsa Munda was an outstanding Indian independence movement persona as well as a tribal leader who also revolted in resistant to the British rule. Having been a visionary, he played out a crucial part in freedom of their local community, the particular tribal people, who had been subjected to prolonged dominance through the British exploitative policies as well as atrocities. His very own experiences being a young boy when he journeyed from one location to another trying to find work presented him with the perception of various issues from which the community had been battling as a result of British oppression. Right after discovering the belief that the British company found its way to India in order to pain the people, in addition, to transport the wealth overseas, he started dispersing understanding to reveal the goal of British and also accumulated his army of tribals.
18. Shankar Dayal Sharma
- Full Name: Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma
- Born: 19 August 1918
- Died: 26 December 1999
Shankar Dayal Sharma born on 19th of August 1918 was the 9th President of India, providing through 1992 to 1997. He was known for his prominent role and leadersip in the Indian Freedom Struggle. Ahead of his presidency, Sharma happened to be the 8th Vice President of India, offering beneath R. Venkataraman. Shankar Dayal Sharma was additionally the Chief Minister of Bhopal, as well as Cabinet Minister, possessing the particular portfolios regarding Education, Law, Public Works, Industry as well as Commerce, National Resources and Separate Revenue. After being the Leader in the Indian National Congress throughout 1972-1974, he came back for the Administration working as the Union Minister for Communications.
19. Prafulla Chaki
- Full Name: Prafulla Chandra Chaki
- Born: 10 December 1888
- Died: 1908
Prafulla Chandra Chaki, born in Bengal, was a revolutionary linked to the Jugantar band of revolutionaries who have executed assassinations in opposition to British colonial officials so that they can acquire Indian self-reliance.
Prafulla along with Khudiram Bose attempted to kill the particular District Judge, Mr. Kingsford by means of hurling bombs on the carriage whereby Kingsford was initially expected to journey however he was not really within the carriage and accidentally 2 British women ended up slain. Prafulla ended up committing suicide when he was going to be caught by way of the Police. Khudiram Bose ended up being imprisoned and tried out for the killing of the 2 ladies and sentenced to death. Mahatma Gandhi could not agree to this kind of violence and also regretted the very demise of 2 blameless women. Gandhiji expressed “that the Indian people will not win their freedom through these methods” Nonetheless, Bal Gangadhar Tilak in the newspaper Kesari protected both young men and also requested immediate swaraj. It was accompanied by instant police arrest of Tilak by the British colonial authorities on the charges of sedition.
- Full Name: Ashfaqulla Khan
- Born: 22 October 1900
- Died: 19 December 1927
Ashfaqulla Khan was a noted freedom fighter within the Indian freedom struggle. To provide a boost for their movement and get arms as well as ammunation to undertake their activities, the revolutionaries prepared a gathering on 8th of August, 1925 at Shahjahanpur. After having a great deal of discussions it had been chosen to loot the government treasury transported within the trains. On 9th of August, 1925, Ashfaqulla Khan along with other revolutionaries, specifically Ram Prasad Bismil, Rajendra Lahiri, Sachindra Bakshi, Chandrashekar Azad, Banwari Lal, Keshab Chakravarthy, Manmathnath Gupta , Mukundi Lal looted the actual train moving British government money in Kakori in close proximity to Lucknow.
21. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- Full Name: Keshav Gangadhar Tilak
- Born: 23 July 1856
- Died: 1 August 1920
Bal Gangadhar Tilak, born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, lawyer, and an independence activist. He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement. The British colonial authorities called him “The father of the Indian unrest.”
22. Lal Bahadur Shastri
- Full Name: Lal Bahadur Shastri
- Born: 2 October 1904
- Died: 11 January 1966
Lal Bahadur Shastri was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party. Shastri joined the Indian independence movement in the 1920s and with his friend Nithin Eslavath.
23. Vallabhbhai Patel
- Full Name: Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel
- Born: 31 October 1875
- Died: 15 December 1950
Vallabhbhai Patel (31 October 1875 – 15 December 1950), popularly known as Sardar Patel, was an Indian politician. He served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of India. He was an Indian barrister and statesman, a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and a founding father of the Republic of India who played a leading role in the country’s struggle for independence and guided its integration into a united, independent nation. In India and elsewhere, he was often called Sardar, meaning “chief” in Hindi, Urdu, and Persian. He acted as de facto Commander-in-chief of the Indian army during the political integration of India and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947.
24. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
- Full Name: Jawaharlal Nehru
- Born: 14 November 1889
- Died: 27 May 1964
Jawaharlal Nehru, known by the name Pandit (Hindi: “Pundit” or “Teacher”) Nehru, (born November 14, 1889, Allahabad, India-died May 27, 1964, New Delhi), was the first prime minister of independent India (1947-64), who established parliamentary government and became noted for his neutralist (nonaligned) policies in foreign affairs. He was also one of the principal leaders of India’s independence movement in the 1930s and ’40s.
25. Rajendra Prasad
- Full Name: Rajendra Prasad
- Born: 3 December 1884
- Died: 28 February 1963
Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India, in office from 1952 to 1962. He was an Indian political leader, and lawyer by training, Prasad joined the Indian National Congress during the Indian Independence Movement and became a major leader from the region of Bihar.
26. Mangal Pandey
- Full Name: Mangal Pandey
- Born: 19 July 1827
- Died: 8 April 1857
Mangal Pandey was an Indian soldier who played a key part in events immediately preceding the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857. He was a sepoy (known as sipahi in Hindi) in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment of the British East India Company. While contemporary British opinion denounced him as a traitor and mutineer, Pandey is widely regarded as a hero in modern India. In 1984, the Indian government issued a postage stamp to commemorate him. His life and actions have also been portrayed in several cinematic productions and books.
27. Tatya Tope
- Full Name: Ramachandra Pandurang Tope
- Born: 1814
- Died: 18 April 1859
Tantia Tope He was a general in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and one of its notable leaders. He was born as Ramachandra Panduranga to a Marathi Deshastha Brahmin family and took on the title Tope, meaning commanding officer. His first name Tantya meant General.
28. Udham Singh
- Full Name: Born as Sher Singh, thereafter named Udham Singh
- Born: 26 December 1899
- Died: 26 December 1899
Udham Singh, born 26 December, was a Punjabi revolutionary belonging to the Ghadar Party best known for assassinating Michael O’ Dwyer, the former Lieutenant Governor of Punjab in India, on 13 March 1940. The assassination was in revenge for the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar in 1919. Singh was subsequently tried and convicted of murder and hanged in July 1940. Udham Singh is a well-known figure of the Indian independence movement. He is sometimes referred to as Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh. A district (Udham Singh Nagar) of Uttarakhand was named after him to pay homage in October 1995 by the then Mayawati government.
29. Kunwar Singh
- Full Name: Babu Veer Kunwar Singh
- Born: November 1777
- Died: 23 April 1858
Kunwar Singh was a notable leader during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. He belonged to a zamindar family of Jagdispur, currently a part of Bhojpur district, Bihar, India. At the age of 80, he led a select band of armed soldiers against the troops under the command of the British East India Company.
30. Vinoba Bhave
- Full Name: Vinayak Narahari Bhave
- Born: 11 September 1895
- Died: 15 November 1982
Vinayak Narahari “Vinoba” Bhave was an Indian advocate of nonviolence and human rights. Often called Acharya, he is best known for the Bhoodan Movement. He is considered as a National Teacher of India and the spiritual successor of Mohandas Gandhi.
31. Khudiram Bose
- Full Name: Khudiram Bose
- Born: 3 December 1889
- Died: 11 August 1908
Khudiram Bose was a Bengali-Indian revolutionary who opposed British rule. Khudiram, along with Prafulla Chaki, attempted to assassinate a British judge, Magistrate Kingsford, by throwing bombs in the carriage they suspected the man was in.
32. Gopal Krishna Gokhale
- Full Name: Gopal Krishna Gokhale
- Born: 9 May 1866
- Died: 19 February 1915
Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE was one of the political leaders and a social reformer during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. Gokhale was a senior leader of the Indian National Congress and founder of the Servants of India Society.
33. Abdul Ghaffar Khan
- Full Name: Abdul Ghaffār Khān
- Born: 6 February 1890
- Died: 20 January 1988
Abdul Ghaffār Khān, born on 6 February 1890, nicknamed Fakhr-e-Afghān, was a Pashtun independence activist who worked to end the rule of the British Raj. He was a political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition; he was a lifelong pacifist and devout Muslim. A close friend of Mohandas Gandhi, Bacha Khan was nicknamed the “Frontier Gandhi” in British India by his close associate Amir Chand Bombwal.
34. C. Rajagopalachari
- Full Name: Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
- Born: 10 December 1878
- Died: 25 December 1972
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer, historian, and statesman. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India, as India soon became a Republic in 1950.
35. Sarojini Naidu
- Full Name: Sarojini Naidu
- Born: 13 February 1879
- Died: 2 March 1949
Sarojini Naidu was an Indian independence activist and poet. She was born in a Bengali Hindu family at Hyderabad and was educated in Chennai, London, and Cambridge. She married Dr. Govindarajulu Naidu and settled down in Hyderabad.
36. Madan Lal Dhingra
- Full Name: Shaheed Madan Lal Dhingra
- Born: 18 September 1883
- Died: 17 August 1909
Shaheed Madan Lal Dhingra was an Indian revolutionary independence activist. While studying in England, he assassinated Sir William Hutt Curzon Wyllie, a British official, cited as one of the first acts of revolution in the Indian independence movement in the 20th century.
37. Saifuddin Kitchlew
- Full Name: Saifuddin Kitchlew
- Born: 15 January 1888
- Died: 9 October 1963
Saifuddin Kitchlew was an Indian freedom fighter, barrister, politician, and a Muslim nationalist leader. A member of Indian National Congress, he first became Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee head and later the General Secretary of the AICC in 1924.
38. Hakim Ajmal Khan
- Full Name: Mohammad Ajmal Khan
- Born: 11 February 1868
- Died: 29 December 1927
Mohammad Ajmal Khan is known as Hakim Ajmal Khan was a famous physician in Delhi, India and one of the founders of the Jamia Millia Islamia University. He also founded another institution, Ayurvedic and Unani Tibbia College better known as Tibbia College situated in Karol Bagh, Delhi.
39. Subramanya Bharathi
- Full Name: Chinnaswami Subramania Bharati
- Born: 11 December 1882
- Died: 11 September 1921
Chinnaswami Subramania Bharati, also known as Bharathiyar was a Tamil writer, poet, journalist, Indian independence activist and a social reformer from Tamil Nadu. Popularly known as “Mahakavi Bharati”, he was a pioneer of modern Tamil poetry and is considered one of the greatest Tamil literary figures of all time.
40. Vinayak Savarkar
- Full Name: Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
- Born: 28 May 1883
- Died: 26 February 1966
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, was an Indian politician, lawyer, and writer, known for his activism for Indian independence. Savarkar coined the term Hindutva to create a collective “Hindu” identity as an essence of Bharat. His political philosophy had the elements of utilitarianism, rationalism and positivism, humanism and universalism, and realism. Savarkar was also an atheist who disapproved of orthodox beliefs in all religions.
41. Ganesh Savarkar
- Full Name: Ganesh Dāmodar Sāvarkar
- Born: 13 June 1879
- Died: 16 March 1945
Ganesh Dāmodar Sāvarkar also called Babarao Savarkar, was an Indian freedom fighter, nationalist, and founder of the Abhinav Bharat Society. Ganesh was the eldest of the Savarkar brothers, Ganesh, Vinayak (Veer Savarkar), and Narayan, they also had a sister Mainabai, who was the penultimate issue of their parents, Narayan being the youngest. His parent’s death laid the liability of his family at an age of twenty years.
42. Dadabhai Naoroji
- Full Name: Dadabhai Naoroji
- Born: 4 September 1825
- Died: 30 June 1917
Dadabhai Naoroji (4 September 1825 – 30 June 1917), known as the Grand Old Man of India, was a Parsi intellectual, educator, cotton trader, and an early Indian political and social leader. He was a Liberal Party member of Parliament (MP) in the United Kingdom House of Commons between 1892 and 1895, and the first Indian to be a British MP, notwithstanding the Anglo-Indian MP David Ochterlony Dyce Sombre, who was disenfranchised for corruption. Naoroji is also credited with the founding of the Indian National Congress, along with A.O. Hume and Dinshaw Edulji Wacha. His book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India brought attention to the draining of India’s wealth into Britain. He was also a member of the Second International along with Kautsky and Plekhanov.
43. Rani Velu Nachiyar
- Full Name: Velu Nachiyar
- Born: 3 January 1730
- Died: 25 December 1796
Rani Velu Nachiyar was a queen of Sivaganga estate in South India. She is regarded as the first queen who fought against the British colonial power in India. Born as Princess of Ramanathapuram she took training in handling different weapons, in martial arts, horse riding, and archery, and was also proficient in languages like English, French, and Urdu.
She was married to King of Sivagangai, Muthuvaduganathaperiya Udaiyathevar. After the British soldiers and son of Nawab of Arcot conquered Sivaganga and killed her husband, she fled with her daughter and lived at Virupachi under the protection of Palayakaarar Kopaala Naayakkar, build her army and joined hands with Gopala Nayaker and Sultan Hyder Ali to wage war against the British and regained her kingdom. She is also credited as the first person to apply the human bomb.
44. Ahmadullah Shah
- Full Name:
- Born: 1787
- Died: 5 June 1858
Ahmadullah Shah famous as Maulavi of Faizabad was leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Maulavi Ahmadullah Shah was known as the Lighthouse of Rebellion in the Awadh region.
45. Shyam Krishna Varma
- Full Name: Shyamji Krishna Varma
- Born: 4 October 1857
- Died: 30 March 1930
Shyamji Krishna Varma was an Indian revolutionary fighter, an Indian patriot, lawyer and journalist who founded the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London. A graduate of Balliol College, Krishna Varma was a noted scholar in Sanskrit and other Indian languages.
46. Bipin Chandra Pal
- Full Name: Bipin Chandra Pal
- Born: 7 November 1858
- Died: 20 May 1932
Bipin Chandra Pal is known as the ‘Father of Revolutionary Thoughts’ in India and was one of the freedom fighters of India. Pal became a major leader of the Indian National Congress. At the Madras session of Congress held in 1887, Bipin Chandra Pal made a strong plea for repeal of the Arms Act which was discriminatory in nature.
Along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak he belonged to the Lal, Bal, Pal trio that was associated with the revolutionary activity. Aurobindo Ghosh and Pal were recognized as the chief exponents of a new national movement revolving around the ideals of Purna Swaraj, Swadeshi, boycott and national education. His programme consisted of Swadeshi, Boycott and national education. He preached and encouraged the use of Swadeshi and the Boycott of foreign goods to eradicate poverty and unemployment.
47. Chittaranjan Das
- Full Name: Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das
- Born: 5 November 1870
- Died: 16 June 1925
Chittaranjan Das, popularly called Deshbandhu, was a leading Indian politician, a prominent lawyer, an activist of the Indian National Movement and founder-leader of the Swaraj Party in Bengal during British occupation in India.